Check the scene for safety hazards BEFORE providing care.
*Agonal breathing is a sign of final stages of life. Agonal breathing is an abnormal pattern of breathing and brain stem reflex characterized by gasping, labored breathing, accompanied by strange vocalizations and/or gurgling. It is a sign that the body is not receiving the oxygen it needs. It occurs when a person is actively dying. If a victim is experiencing agonal breathing CPR must begin immediately.
If you are alone:
Children and Infants:
Always provide care first for unresponsive victims of hypoxic arrest (i.e. lack of oxygen to the brain due to drowning, injury, drug overdose, stroke, etc…).
Naloxone or Narcan, if available, may be administered by a bystander if suspected life-threatening opioid overdose has occurred.
Assess the approximate age and size of the victim. Suggested guidelines for administering CPR are as follows:
C-A-B (Compressions-Airway-Breathing) Order
Use one hand on the forehead to tilt the victim’s head back. AT THE SAME TIME place the other hand under the victim’s chin, lift the chin to open the airway and displace the tongue. Look into the victim’s mouth for an obstruction. If you see an obstruction, remove it immediately.
Keep airway open with head tilt-chin lift method. Administer one rescue breath (1 second). Observe chest for rise and fall. If breath does not go in, re-tilt head and administer second rescue breath (1 second). Observe chest for rise and fall AT THE SAME TIME as administering rescue breaths.
Use one of the following methods to administer rescue breaths:
Chest compressions, which keep oxygen flowing to the brain, is the single most important factor in life saving procedures.
Chest compressions should be swift, hard and consistent, at a rate of 100-120 per minute.
Perform 30 compressions then administer 2 rescue breaths
Continue CPR cycles until:
Partial air exchange
Common causes for airway obstruction
Responsive adult or child: Heimlich Maneuver
Unresponsive adult or child (if breath does NOT go in)
Unresponsive infant (if breath does NOT go in)